“Slavery has developed a new face, and bondage has transcended the physical to
psychical and mental and is becoming neurobiological, through hi-tech expansion right
in to the human brain with microchips.”

For the hundreds of millennia that man has roamed the earth, he has killed, enslaved
and even eaten his fellow man. Groups of individuals have banded together and
developed a higher degree of power from where they have been able to force themselves
upon others and deny them human respect. Since the foundation of the organized
society, different breeds of dictators have built their truths on law and order, enabling
them to suppress their subjects’ demands and opinions. Insurgent individuals have been
thrown in chains, put behind bars, locked up in cellars, declared mentally ill and
confined to mental hospitals.
人間が地球を移動し始めてから数10 万年の間、人は仲間を殺し、奴隷化してきた。また、食べることさえあった。個人が集団化し、それまでよりも高いレベルの力を持ち始め、他人を従わせたり、人間としての尊重を否定するようになった。組織化された社会が確立さ

The old form of cannibalism, one man eating another, has lived on, in a more
sophisticated guise, in the relationship between the state and individuals and groups
within society whose lives the despots have stifled and devoured. Slavery has developed
a new face, and to an increasing extent bondage has transcended the physical to
psychical and mental and is becoming neuro-biological, through hi-tech expansion right
into the human brain with microchips, along with state intentions and extensive
projects into brain-computer technology.

Despite the unbelievably bloody history that has been written for mankind by emperors
and other despots, those with insight into what is actually going on behind the bastions
of power argue that we have already passed over the threshold to an even more
inhuman era. The very well-known Japanese professor Yoneji Masuda, coined the term
“the information society” in his book of the same title (1980) in which he addresses the
dangers of modern communication technology and advanced computer applications by
which it is possible to link up the human brain to computers over international
distances. He warns us that if people fail to learn about these neurological
communication systems, and gain influence over their application, a new kind of
dictatorship threatens, and he adds, the quashing of human rights in a traditional
dictatorship will pale in comparison to the injustice that will be suffered. He argues that
the technology provides the state with the power to limit and control the citizens’
private lives and social activity. “It would be possible to violate freely personal integrity
and to suppress man’s independent, social and political activity, making Orwell’s
terrifying robotised state a reality.” All this concerns the ability to connect human
cerebral functions to computers with the aid of microchips and radio-implants. Several
official inquiries by Government select committees and other documents have noticed
the same developments. The Swedish state report, SOU 1972-47 discussed the
possibilities of the new technique, that it can both collect facts about a person and
control his actions. It added the caution that with the extension of information
techniques one could detect the shadow of a formidable police-state with a totally
efficient and inhuman administration.

の著書(1980 年刊)で「情報社会」という言葉を初めて使った。同書内で教授は、現代の通信技術の危険性、また国境を越えて人間の脳をコンピュータにつなぐことが可能になるコンピューターの先端的な利用の危険性について述べている。人々がこのような神経学的な通信システムを学習せずに、その用途への影響力を掌握すれば、新しい種類の専制君主が出現する恐れがあると、同教授は警告している。さらに従来の専制国家での人権の抑え込みも、今後被ると見られている不当な扱いに比べると、さほど重要性を帯びなくなるだ
る。スウェーデン政府の報告書(SOU 1972-47)では、個人に関する事実を収集し、その行動を制御する新しい技術の可能性について述べている。同書内では、情報技術の発展により、完全に効率的かつ非人間的な管理下に置かれた恐るべき警察国家の前兆に気付くか

Right from the time when computers were first being made in the mid 1940s, research
was being done with electrode implants in the human brain. The use of the technique
was developed at a quite a rate and it soon became clear to those in the know that there
was not just a medical research interest behind it all, but also a political agenda. In
1956, the American Psychological Association arranged a symposium on the
consequences of the new technique. Two of the participants, Professor Carl R. Rogers
and Professor B. F. Skinner, had their speeches published in the scientific journal
Science in November of the same year.
コンピュータが1940 年代の半ばに発明された、まさにその時から、人間の脳に電極を埋め込む研究が行われていた。この技術の利用は相当の勢いで進展し、医学研究にもたらされる利益以外に政治的な意図も隠されていることが、事情通の人々の間で明らかになるのも
時間はかからなかった。1956 年、米国心理学会はこの新しい技術の重要性に関するシンポジウムを開催した。カールR. ロジャーズ教授とB. F. スキナー教授は、同会議内で行った講演の内容を同年11 月発行の『Science』誌に掲載した。

Professor Skinner said that, “Science is steadily increasing our power to influence,
change and mold – in a world, control – human behavior... Of all the dictatorships
espoused by utopists, this is the most profound, and incipient dictators might well find
in this utopia a guidebook of political practise.” His colleague, Carl R. Rogers,
maintained that the development of behavioural sciences was growing, and along with
it the capacity to predict and control behaviour. He also posed the question of just who
was going to be controlled, by whom ant for what purposes.

制君主であればこのようなユートピアの中に、政治的な慣例の手引きを見出すかもしれない。」同教授の同僚、カールR. ロジャーズ教授は、行動科学の進化は進んでおり、その進化と同時に行動を予知しコントロールする能力も進んでいると主張した。同氏はまた、誰が、誰によって、何の目的でコントロールされるかといった単純な疑問も呈している。

“I believe we agree that the behavioral science are making and will continue to make
increasingly rapid progress in the understanding of behavior, and that as a consequence
the capacity to predict and control behavior is developing with equal rapidity. I believe
we are in agreement that the tremendous potential power of a science which permits
the prediction and control of behavior may be misused, and that the possibility of such
misuse constitutes a serious threat...Who will be controlled? Who will exercise control?
What type of control will be exercised? Most important of all, toward what end or what
purpose, or in the pursuit of what value, will control be exercised?”
れかたをされる可能性があること、そのような誤用の可能性は重大な脅威につながることにも異論はないとみている。誰がコントロールされるのか? 誰がコントロールするか? どのような種類のコントロールが行われるのか? 最も重要なのは、何の結末に向けて、あるいは

The term “cyber” was minted at Princeton University in the summer of 1947 by a group
of scientists, and was to denote everything within control and communications
technology, esp. concerned with interfacing the human brain, biological systems and
computers. In 1948, Norbert Wiener published the first book which touched on the
unimagined possibilities of computers and how the new technology had the potential to
scrutinize the human psyche. The book was entitled Cybernetics, the term deriving
from the Greek word for steersman. Cyber came to stand for scientific control and the
book was published in the same year as Orwell’s 1984. Norbert Wiener was an
American mathematician, and had participated in the development of the first
computers. Some years later, he wrote a preface to the second edition of Cybernetics
prior to publication, warning of the developments: “The role of information and the
technique of measuring and transmitting information constitute a whole new discipline
for the engineer, for the physiologist, and for the sociologist. The automaton which the
first edition of this book barely forecast have come to their own, and the related social
dangers against which I have warned, not only in this book, but also in its small
companion, “The Human Use of Human Beings”, have risen well above the horizon.”
The technique was to go under the name in Bio-medical Telemetry, Brain-Computer
Interaction or mind control.

「サイバー」という言葉は、1947 年、プリンストン大学の科学者の間で造語され、コントロールとコミュニケーション技術、特に人間の脳、生体系、コンピューターの連結に関する技術のあらゆる物事を表す言葉となった。1948 年、ノーバート・ウィナーは想像もつか















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